Animal models of the mechanisms of action of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (RTMS): comparisons with electroconvulsive shock (ECS)
Lisanby SH, Belmaker RH.
Department of Biological Psychiatry,
New York State Psychiatric Institute,
1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 126,
New York, NY 10032, USA.
Depress Anxiety 2000; 12(3):178-87


Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive means of brain stimulation with a broad range of basic neuroscience and potential future clinical applications. Recent animal studies have shed some light on the mechanisms of action of rTMS, and broadened our understanding of how this intervention affects brain functioning acutely and chronically. Differences in the physical properties of magnetic and electrical stimulation result in marked disparities in the amount and distribution of electrical current induced in the brain; nevertheless, rTMS shares many of the behavioral and biochemical actions of electroconvulsive shock (ECS) and other antidepressant treatments. rTMS reduces immobility in the Porsolt swim task and enhances apomorphine-induced stereotypy, as does ECS. Although rTMS can induce a seizure when given at high enough doses, most studies have found subconvulsive levels of rTMS to be anticonvulsant. rTMS acutely modulates dopamine and serotonin content and turnover rates. Chronic rTMS modulates cortical beta-adrenergic receptors, reduces frontal cortex 5-HT2 receptors, increases 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptors in frontal cortex and cingulate, and increases N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the ventromedial hypothalamus, basolateral amygdala, and parietal cortex. More work will be needed to clarify and explore the mechanism behind the early suggestions that rTMS may exert long-term-potentiation-like or long-term-depression-like action on hippocampal activity. Finally, rTMS is emerging as yet another intervention, like ECS and other antidepressants, that can regulate gene expression and may have an impact on neuronal viability and synaptic plasticity.
rTMS and rats
ECT versus rTMS
rTMS for depression
rTMS and serotonin 5-HT1a
rTMS, 5-HT2 and beta-receptors
rTMS and brain derived neurotrophic factor
rTMS for unipolar depression and bipolar disorder
Therapeutic brain stimulation for affective disorders

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